Influenza

Commonly call as “the flu” which is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus that infect the nose, throat, and lungs.

Highly contagious disease caused by infection from influenza type A or B (or rarely C) virus.

SIGN AND SYMPTOMS:

  • Headache
  • Fever or feeling feverish/chills
  • Muscle or body aches
  • Runny or stuffy nose
  • Sore throat
  • Cough
  • Gastric
  • Fatigue (tiredness)
  • Some people may have vomiting and diarrhea, though this is more common in children than adults.

Risk factors

  • Age: target young children and older adults.
  • Living conditions: live in facilities along with many other residents (nursing homes or military barracks)
  • Weakened immune system: Cancer treatments, anti-rejection drugs, corticosteroids and HIV/AIDS can weaken your immune system which can make it easier to catch influenza.
  • Chronic illnesses: Chronic conditions, such as asthma, diabetes or heart problems, increase your risk of influenza complications.
  • Pregnancy: Pregnant women are more likely to develop influenza complications, particularly in the second and third trimesters.
  • Obesity: People with a BMI of 40 or more have an increased risk of complications from flu.

Causes

  • Influenza virus type A (found in animal)
  • Influenza virus type B (circulate among humans)
  • Influenza virus type C
  • Spread mainly from person to person through coughing or sneezing by people infected with influenza.
  • Infected by touching contaminated surface and then touch their mouth or nose.

DIAGNOSIS:

  • Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Test
  • Viral tissue cell culture
  • Rapid call culture
  • Immunofluorescence
  • Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction( RT-PCR)
  • Rapid Molecular Assay

TREATMENT:

Concept

  • This is virus infection not bacterial, so inhibit viral nuraminidase or M2 protein
  • Prevention: Vaccine

Non-pharmacology

  • Wash hand with soap! Not just water.
  • Drink enough fluid
  • Nutritious diet and enough rest.
  • Swish and spit
  • Try nasal irrigation
  • Line up a caregiver