Tuberculosis

Infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis that can spread through the lymph nodes and bloodstream to any organ in your body.

Causes

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, slow-growing bacteria thrive in areas of the body that are rich in blood and oxygen, such as the lungs.

Signs and symptoms

  • Fatigue
  • Chest pain
  • Weight Loss
  • Fever
  • Cough with bloody mucus
  • Night sweats
  • Chills
  • Loss of appetite
  • Significant nail clubbing

Risk factors

  • Chronic lung disease
  • HIV
  • Overcrowding and malnutrition
  • Diabetes mellitus (three-fold increase)
  • Alcoholism
  • Long term on treatment that suppress immune

Diagnosis

  1. Active tuberculosis
  • First considered in those with signs of lung disease or constitutional symptoms lasting longer than two weeks. A chest X-ray and multiple sputum cultures for acid-fast bacilli are typically part of the initial evaluation. Interferon-γ release assays and tuberculin skin tests are of little use in the developing world. IGRA have similar limitations in those with HIV.
  • Identifying M. tuberculosis in a clinical sample (e.g., sputum, pus, or a tissue biopsy). However, the difficult culture process for this slow-growing organism can take two to six weeks for blood or sputum culture.
  • Nucleic acid amplification tests and adenosine deaminase testing may allow rapid diagnosis of TB. These tests, however, are not routinely recommended, as they rarely alter how a person is treated. Blood tests to detect antibodies are not specific or sensitive, so they are not recommended.

  1. Latent tuberculosis
  • Mantoux tuberculin skin test

Medical concept, not for try.

  1. Active tuberculosis
  • fairly standard approach. DO NOT EVER skip nor stop medication in treatment period.
  • Must seek help from healthcare professional.
  • Medical professionals need to keep update with new research.
  1. Latent tuberculosis
  • fairly standard approach. DO NOT EVER skip nor stop medication in treatment period..
  • Must seek help from healthcare professional.
  • Medical professionals need to keep update with new research.