Lung Cancer

Causes and risk factors

  • Smoking – Biggest cause of lung cancer. The length of time being a smoker is more serious than the amount of cigarettes you smoke a day. Passive smoking (breathing in other people’s cigarette smoke) will also increases the risk of lung cancer.
  • Exposure to certain chemicals – A number of substances that occur in the workplace can cause lung cancer. In particular, these include: arsenic, asbestos, beryllium, cadmium, coal and coke fumes, diesel exhaust, nickle, radon (radioactive gas) and silica.
  • Survivor of lung cancer have a greater risk to develop a second lung cancer

Aka Lung Carcinoma, due to uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung (malignant lung tumor).


Imaging tests – An X-ray image of your lungs may reveal an abnormal mass or nodule. A CT scan can reveal small lesions in your lungs that might not be detected on an X-ray.

Sputum cytology – If you have a cough and are producing sputum, looking at the sputum under the microscope can sometimes reveal the presence of lung cancer cells.

Tissue sample (biopsy) – A sample of abnormal cells may be removed in a procedure called a biopsy.

Consult healthcare professional

Stage I. Cancer is limited to the lung and hasn’t spread to the lymph nodes. The tumor is generally smaller than 2 inches (5 centimeters) across – You may advised to have surgery to remove part of the lung (a lobectomy) or all of the lung (a pneumonectomy).

Stage II. The tumor at this stage may have grown larger than 2 inches, or it may be a smaller tumor that involves nearby structures, such as the chest wall, the diaphragm or the lining around the lungs (pleura). Cancer may also have spread to the nearby lymph nodes – Depending on the position of the tumour, your surgeon may remove part of the lung (a lobectomy) or all of the lung (a pneumonectomy).

Stage III. The tumor at this stage may have grown very large and invaded other organs near the lungs. Or this stage may indicate a smaller tumor accompanied by cancer cells in lymph nodes farther away from the lungs – If your scans showed that there are cancer cells in the middle area of the chest (the mediastinum), your doctor may suggest radiotherapy instead of surgery.

Stage IV. Cancer has spread beyond the affected lung to the other lung or to distant areas of the body – Many trials have used chemotherapy in this situation and we know that it can help people to live longer as well as relieving symptoms.