Causes of Pneumonia

  1. Bacteria
  2. Viruses
  3. Fungi
  4. Chemical (inhalation of irritating substances or ingestion of kerosene)

Risk Factors of Pneumonia

  1. Habit of smoking
  2. Have a weak immune system
  3. Have recent surgery or trauma
  4. Have serious illness such as heart disease or diabetes
  5. Have viral respiratory infectious such as laryngitis

Inflammation of the lung parenchyma (parts of the lungs involved in gas transfer), that is commonly caused by infectious agents.

Signs & Symptoms of Pneumonia:

  • Dry cough
  • Chest pain
  • Fever with shivering
  • Muscle aches
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Rapid breathing and heartbeat
  • Having difficulty in breathing


  • Physical exam
  • During inhalation, crackling and bubbling sound in the chest are the indicator of pneumonia.
  • Diagnostic tests
  • Chest X-ray (determine the presence of infections in the lung)
  • Blood Test (determine the presence of infections in the bloodstream)
  • Sputum Test (determine the type of pneumonia present)
  • Bronchoscopy Test (determine if blocked airways contribute to pneumonia)

Medical concept, not for try:

  • treat pathogenic infection.
  • reduce inflammation.
  • relax constricted airways.
  • drainage of mucus from the lungs
  • For medical students reference only. As patient, never change your drug prescription.

Non-pharmacological Treatment and Prevention

  • Humidifier – increase humidity or moisture in the surroundings
  • Avoid smoking
  • Ensure the environment is clean (free from dust and bacteria)